Acta Medica Medianae
AND CADMIUM UPON THE KIDNEY FUNCTION
OF THE A TEMPORE NEWBORNS
Zoran Pop-Trajković, Marina Jonović and Vladimir Antić
Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic of the Clinic Center, Nis
The aim of this paper is to examine the subjection of the embryo and the new born to lead and cadmium as well as the effects of these metals upon the kidney function in the children newly born on time. The hypothetical framework of the paper was that lead and cadmium that are transplacentally transmitted to the embryo organism lead to the change of the kidney function in the sense of damages done to the tubular system and to the interstitium along with changes in the urine sediment and in the levels of urea and creatinine in the semm; thus induced effects can be detected in the first week of life of the new born babies.
The examination was done in 1995 at Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic in Nis. The examined and the control group consisted of 30 newborns on time. The clinic examination was carried out on all the newborns. Regarding the kidney function examination, on the forth day of life all the newborn children were subjected to the determination of the value of urea and creatinine in the vein blood, the urine examination, the physical and physical-chemical features of the urine (outlook, specific weight, color, pH), the chemical status of the urine, the microscopic examination of the urine sediment, the ultrasonic examination of the kidneys. On the basis of the carried out examination and the obtained results we came to the following conclusions:
The lead concentration in the air at the localities related to the examined group is above GVI while for the control one below GVI. The cadmium concentration in the air from the examined localities in both groups are above GVI. The lead and cadmium concentrations in the sediment materials at the localities related to the examined and control group are below GVI.
The lead concentration in the umbilical cord blood is higher in the control group with respect to the examined one though without statistic significance. The lead concentration in the human milk is higher in the control group than in the examined one though without statistic significance. The average values of lead in the placenta tissue are higher in the examined than in the control group though without statistic significance. In the material in which lead was determined there was a correlation established between mothers' smoking during the pregnancy and the lead concentration in the placenta tissue of the control group.
The average values of cadmium in the umbilical cord blood, human milk and placenta tissue are higher in the control group than in the examined one without statistically significant difference. The determined cadmium values in the human milk in both groups are smaller than MDK for cadmium in the human milk. In the material in which cadmium was determined, there was a correlation established between mother's smoking during the pregnancy and the cadmium concentration in the human milk in the control group.
The determined concentrations of lead and cadmium in the examined material are higher in the control one than in the examined group (except for lead concentration in the placenta tissue) which lead us to conclude that, beside the air, there are other, more important ways of introducing lead and cadmium into the pregnant woman's organism.
The estimation of the urea and creatinine level in the serum as well as the proteinuria estimate did not establish any toxic effects of the examined heavy metals upon the kidney function.
The research carried out with the babies born on time in the first seven days of life did not confirm the working hypothesis.
Key words: Lead, cadmium, kidney function, newborns a tempore