|Editorial  board | About the Journal   | Instructions for Authors | Peer Review Policy | Clinical and Experimental Work Code |   Contact  |  

Acta Medica Medianae
Vol. 46, No 4, December, 2005
UDK 61
YU ISSN 0365-4478





Miloš Filipović
Zavod za plućne bolesti
Bulevar Dr Zorana Đinđića 83
18000 Niš, Srbija i Crna Gora
Tel.: 018/ 233 355
E– mail: milosfilip@yahoo.com




Miloš Filipović1, Boris Đinđić2 i Snežana Cekić3


Zavod za plućne bolesti u Nišu1,
Institut za patološku fiziologiju Medicinskog fakulteta u Nišu2,
Institut za fiziologiju Medicinskog fakulteta u Nišu3 



T–helper cells can be divided into two distinct subtypes of effector cells based on the profile of cytokines they produce. Th1 cells produce interferon– γ (IFN– γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF– β), and are associated with cell– mediated responses, particularly with resistance to intracellular pathogens (bacteria, parasites, yeasts and viruses). In contrast, Th2 . cells produce IL– 4, IL– 5, IL– 9 and IL– 13. Th2 cells are involved in antibody responses and IgE production, as well as tissue fibrosis, and eosinophilia. Th2 responses are important in the resistance to infection with helminth parasites. Although both Th responses are protective against certain infectious pathogens, they can themselves be pathogenic: Th1 cell responses can mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas dysregulation of Th2 responses is implicated in
atopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic eczema, food allergy and anaphylaxis). The recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of initiation and control of Th1 and Th2 cell responses will eventually lead to new therapeutic strategies. Acta Medica Medianae 2005;44(4): 61 – 65.

Key words: cytokines, T helper cells, atopy, autoimmunity