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Acta Medica Medianae
Vol. 45
Number 1, Januar, 2006
UDK 61
YU ISSN 0365-4478




Slavica Stevanović
JKP ''Naissus''
1/1 Kneginje Ljubice Street

18000 Niš, Serbia and Montenegro




Copyright 2006 by Faculty  of Medicine, University of Nis


Slavica Stevanovic* and Dragana Nikic**

JKP ''Naissus'' u Nišu*
Institut za zaštitu zdravlja u Nišu**

Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease) hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between  water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004), it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort) restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.
The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective) association between  mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.
It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.
Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.
Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD. Acta Medica Medianae 2006;45(1):53-60.

 Key words: magnesium, drinking water, cardiovascular disease