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Acta Medica Medianae
Vol. 50, No 1, March, 2011

UDK 61
ISSN 0365-4478(Printed version)
ISSN 1821-2794(Online)


Correspondence to:

Goran Čukić

Dom zdravlja "dr Nika Labović" Berane

Crna Gora

E-mail: epid.dz.berane@t-com.me

From history of medicine







 Goran Čukić

Health care center "dr Nika Labović" Berane, Crna Gora  


As a separate clinical entity, Typhus epidemicus was defined before microbacterial diagnosis was established. At that time, the diagnosis of  epidemic Typhus was made by distinctive clinical presentation and personal experience of the medical staff. Having insight into the archives from 1836 year, the occurrence of epidemic typhus was reported in  Kragujevac in 1836. Epidemic typhus was defined as a separaret entity in 1836 when W. Gerhard established the disease in accordance to the clinical presentation and autopsy finding, after which he presented his findings to the public.Since then, other doctors have been obligedto carry out the whole procedure. Epidemic typhus documented in Philadelphia was "laboratory confirmed and epidemic-related". Owing to the development of medicine, the confirmation of this entity by means of etiopathogenesis and other modern methods followed. As opposed to this, there was a « routine dignostics» which is less reliable. That is why the diagnostics was possible at the level of non-entity. Doctors in Sebia, who denied the considerations by Gerhard, were able to document the first entity of the epidemic typhus. The classification of typhus and its differentiation from "clinically confirmed cases" ensued. Therefore, in every further description of epidems, the Gerhard's or some more reliable methods sholuld be applied. Acta Medica Medianae 2011;50(1):67-72.


Key words: Typhus epidemicus, Gerhard W., Louis P., Djordjevic V., Pacek K., nosology, disease entity, Typhoid Fefer, Typhus Fever, Kragujevac, Philadelphia