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No. 20/24, Aleja Svetog Save, Banja Luka
Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF CLINICAL AND ULTRASOUND EXAMINATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL DYSPLASIA of the HIP
Predrag Grubor1, Rade Tanjga2 and Milan Grubor2
Traumatology Clinic Banja Luka, Republika Srpska1
School of Medicine Banja Luka, Republika Srpska2
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is the most common congenital deformation of the musculoskeletal system and its successful treatment is closely related to early diagnosis.
The study is aimed at examining the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and at analysing the validity of clinical examination, which is used for the early detection of DDH in the neonatal period, compared to ultrasound examination.
The study involved 400 neonates born in the Banja Luka Region. A new questionnaire was open during the first regular ultrasound and clinical examination of the neonates’ hips and anamnestic and clinical data were recorded in it: the asymmetry of the gluteal, inguinal and femoral folds (Bade sign), the result of abduction test separately for each hip, the Ortolani sign of luxation and the Palmen sign of reposition, then hip sonography. A Toshiba ultrasound machine with a 7.5 MHz linear probe was used. The method employed was Professor Reinhard Graf’s.
Out of the total number of the children with a positive sonographic finding for DDH, 63.16% of them have one of the clinical signs of DDH. The ability of a clinical finding to identify those patients who do not have DDH and have a negative sonographic finding is 79.8%. Out of the total number of the examined children with a positive clinical finding, only 15.58% of them also have a positive sonographic finding for DDH.
This research has showed that clinical examination of the hips is of low sensitivity, specificity and reliability, and that not all types of DDH can be detected. Clinical examination must remain an integral part of every infant’s examination, but it constitutes a complementary diagnostic procedure to ultrasound examination. The ultrasound examination of DDH has created new possibilities and has filled the void that existed due to the deficiency of clinical tests, and at the same time it has reduced the number of X-ray examinations of the hips.
This research has confirmed that clinical examination of the hips does not meet the screening criteria. It must remain an integral part of an infant’s examination because it, among other things, provides the information which enables the orthopaedic surgeon to choose the most beneficial therapeutic procedures in DDH treatment. Acta Medica Medianae 2011;50(1):26-31.
Key words: developmental dysplasia of the hip, clinical examination, ultrasound examination