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Institute of Pharmacology
Faculty of Medicine
18000 Niš, Serbia
DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH DIAZEPAM
Zoran Bojanić1, Novica Bojanić1, Vladmila Bojanić2 and Marko Lazović3
Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia 1
Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia 2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia 3
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with anxyolitic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, antitremor, and amnestic activity. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P (CYP) 450 enzyme system. Diazepam is N-demethylated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 to the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam, and is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite temazepam. N-desmethyl-diazepam and temazepam are both further metabolized to oxazepam. Concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diazepam may alter plasma concentrations of this drug, although this effect is unlikely to be associated with clinically relevant interactions.
The goal of this article was to review the current literature on clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with diazepam.
A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for original research and review articles published in English between January 1971. and May 2011. Among the search terms were drug interactions, diazepam, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and cytochrome P450. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, and meeting abstracts were excluded. The reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional publications.
Diazepam is substantially sorbed by the plastics in flexible containers, volume control set chambers, and tubings of intravenous administration sets. Manufacturers recommend not mixing with any other drug or solution in syringe or solution, although diazepam is compatible in syringe with cimetidine and ranitidine, and in Y-site with cisatracurium, dobutamine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, nafcillin, quinidine gluconate, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Diazepam is compatible with: dextrose 5% in water, Ringers injection, Ringers injection lactated and sodium chloride 0.9%. Emulsified diazepam is compatible with Intralipid and Nutralipid.
Diazepam has low potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Although interactions with diazepam may be predictable in specific circumstances, when diazepam is used with: analgesics, anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics/sedatives, barbiturates, hypnotics, MAO inhibitors, narcotics, sedative anihistamines, phenothiazines and other antidepressants, careful consideration is needed. Acta Medica Medianae 2011;50(2):76-82.
Key words: diazepam, drug interactions, drug metabolism