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Acta Medica Medianae
Vol. 50, No 4, December, 2011

UDK 61
ISSN 0365-4478(Printed version)
ISSN 1821-2794(Online)


Correspondence to:

Vanja Ničković

University of Pristina

Medical Faculty in Kosovska Mitrovica

Institute for Infective Deseases

Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia

E-mail: vanja.j@open.telekom.rs

Review article                                                                                    

UDC: 616.36-07:613.81






  Vanja Ničković1, Jelenka Nikolić2, Gordana Kocić2, Milena Ilić and Boris Djindjić3



University of Priština, Medical Faculty in Kosovska Mitrovica, Institute for Infective Deseases, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia1

University of Niš, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry, Niš, Serbia2

University in Niš , Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Niš, Serbia3



Alcoholism is one of the leading diseases affecting people’s health and immunity worldwide. Nearly 30 thousand people in the USA die from chronic liver damage. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol. Alcohol is primarily a hepatotoxic agent. Hepatotoxicity of alcohol is clinically manifested by the development of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. It is characterized by appropriate symptomatology, depending on the degree of liver damage. Excessive use of alcohol for a long period of time, along with malnutrition, genetic and ethnic predisposition, leads to alcoholic cirrhosis and the development of its complications. Portal hypertension damages other organs and organ systems, causing hepatopulmonary syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.

For these reasons, alcoholism reduction is given priority, as well as reduction of morbidity and mortality of people with alcoholic chronic liver damage. Therefore, early diagnosis of alcohol abuse is necessary, as well as timely diagnosis of different degrees of alcoholic liver damage.

The diagnosis of chronic alcoholic liver damage is set on the basis of confirmed data of alcohol consumption; liver function test (serum markers aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, prothrombin time, serum bilirubin and albumin level); serum markers of liver fibrosis. Fibrosis markers are directly involved in sedimentation and dissolution of extracellular matrix, i.e. in the process of fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis of liver tissues. They include markers and enzymes of metabolism, as well as cytokines and chemokines. Acta Medica Medianae 2011;50(4):55-61.


      Key words:  alcoholic liver damage, serum marker