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University of Niš
Faculty of Medicine
Bulevar Dr Zorana Đinđjica 81
18000 Niš, Serbia
Vitamin D immunomodulatory effect
Jelena Radović, Danica Marković, Asen Veličkov, Branka Đorđević and Slavica Stojnev
University of Niš, Faculty of Medicine, Niš, Serbia
In addition to the classical role in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D shows a regulatory effect on a number of different cells, especially its anti-proliferative and pro-differential biological function. Through its own receptor in the immune cells, vitamin D increases the phagocytic activity of macrophages and NK cells. Also, by binding to the regulatory sequences of antimicrobial peptides genes, vitamin D increases the microbicidal activity of phagocytes. Inhibition of differentiation and maturation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, as well as direct influence on their contact with T lymphocytes, it significantlly influences the type of immune response. Dendritic cells under the influence of vitamin D induce a suppressor T cells, which can inhibit Th1 cell response and are critical in the regulation of immune tolerance. Vitamin D inhibits proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells, as well their cytokine production, and suppresses the differentiation and maturation of B lymphocytes.
Due to all these functions, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects in the prevention and modification of a number of autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, immunity disorders with predominant Th2 response (asthma, allergies) did not show such good results after the use of hypocalcemic VDR agonists. Acta Medica Medianae 2012;51(4):58-64.
Key words: vitamin D, immunomodulatory effect, innate immunity, cathelicidin