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Marija Trenkić Božinović, MD
Ophthalmology Clinic, Clinical Center Niš
Dr Zorana Djindjića 48, 18000 Niš
HUMAN OCULAR DIROFILARIOSIS: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES
Marija Trenkić-Božinović1, Suzana Otašević2,3, Gordana Stanković-Babić1,2, Aleksandar Tasić3, Milan Trenkić4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, Serbia 2
Center for Microbiology, Institute of Public Health, Niš, Serbia3
Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic, University Medical Center Niš, Serbia4
Dirofilarioses are zoonoses caused by filaria of the genus Dirofilaria, the parasites of domestic and wild animals. People are just random carriers of this parasite. In Europe, human dirofilariosis is caused by two species: Dirofilaria repens ( D. repens, also known as a species of The Old World ), usually with the superficial localization of infection, and D. immitis, which is present throughout the world, and causes, beside superficial, visceral dirofilariosis. So far, based on the data from reference literature, it can be observed that in Serbia about 34 cases of human dirofilariosis have been diagnosed and published. It is assumed that the prevalence of this parasitosis is significantly higher as our country is an endemic area for dirofilariosis in dogs and the region where species of mosquitoes, which are transitory hosts and vectors of Dirofilaria spp., are present.
The clinical picture of dirofilariosis depends on the type and location of the parasite in the human body. In our country, patients diagnosed with dirofilariosis had subcutaneous or subconjunctival infection in the majority of cases. Ocular dirofilariosis may affect the orbit and the periorbital region, the skin of the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the Tenon membrane, a retrobulbar space or has an intrabulbar localization. These patients may have a severe disability, and surgery alone can be complicated due to localization. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of this unexpected important zoonoses, with special emphasis on the importance within the ophthalmic practice. Acta Medica Medianae 2014;53(1):80-84.
Key words: ocular dirofilariosis, D. repens, D. immitis