Introduction: Orthodontic anomalies
are very common both in the world and in our country. The etiology of
orthodontic anomalies is multifactorial, complex and conditioned by
numerous genetic and non-genetic factors: endogenous and exogenous.
Prevention of orthodontic anomalies is possible if we have an insight
into the most common etiological factors.
Goal: To assess the frequency of individual etiological factors
and assess the overall risk of orthodontic anomalies in children in
Materials and methods: The research was conducted on 115
children, first grade elementary school pupils (28.68% of all 1st grade
students), average age of 6.8 years, from 4 settlements around Novi Sad:
Kisač, Kać, Veternik, and Futog. The research was conducted in the form
of anonymous rounding surveys for parents with a preliminary explanation
of the questions asked. The questions included etiological factors for
the occurrence of orthodontic anomalies (diseases in pregnancy,
childbirth, breastfeeding, supplementation and feeding, type of
pacifier, position of the bottle when eating, bad habits, position when
sleeping, position of arms when sleeping in relation to the jaw, pillow
height, mouth breathing, orthodontic anomalies in parents).
Results: Results indicate the following etiological factors as
the most common: supplementary feeding and bottle feeding (in 41.74% of
cases), breastfeeding from 0 to 6 months (40.87% of respondents) and
mouth breathing (in 24.35% of children). In the examination of the total
risk for orthodontic anomalies, low-risk was found in 95.65% of cases,
medium-risk in 4.35% (in Kisac 9.38%, in Kać 2.94%, in Veternik 4.35%,
in Futog 0% of children), while there were no high-risk respondents.
Conclusion: Preventive measures should be aimed at educating
mothers about the need and benefits of a natural way of breastfeeding
and of using a spoon for supplementation and feeding.
Key words: orthodontic anomalies,
breastfeeding, supplementation, mouth breathing
Address of correspondence:
Prof. Predrag Vučinić, PhD
Dentistry Clinic of Vojvodina
Hajduk Veljkova 12, 21000 Novi Sad
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